C++ Queue Example: FIFO Queue

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Hello! In this guide, I want to tell you about one of the most widely used data structures in C++. This is a type called queue.

The queue is a data structure organized on the principle of FIFO (first in – first out). We can compare it with the array of the element – the difference is just in capabilities. It looks like this:

Let’s try to create one! We will fill it with a huge number and then output it on the screen:

So, first we need to create a data structure:

struct number {
	int value;
	number *next;
}

The difference between the queue and the stack is that we should allocate the memory for the first element from the beginning:

number *top, *p, *first; // create pointers
top = new number; // allocate the memory for the first element
top->next = NULL; // now it’s the last one too, so the pointer to the next element is NULL
file >> top->value; // read the data from the text file
first = top; // save the address of the first element
do {
	p = new number; // allocate memory for the new element
	p->next = NULL; // since it’s the last now, the next element is NULL 
	file >> p->value; // read the data from the text file
	top->next = p; // attach the new element to the previous 
	top = p; // move the second pointer
} while (top->value); // repeat the cycle until the file is over
In this way we have filled our queue with the data from the file. Now let’s try to output it:
top = first; // choose the first element
top = first; // choose the first element
do {
	cout << top->value; // output the data
	top = top->next; // move to the next element
} while (top != NULL); // repeat the cycle until the text file is over

Now we are able to create a dynamic data structure called queue, read from the text file, and output it.

Thanks for the attention!

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