# Python Sample: Input-Output, Arithmetic Operations in Python

Python 3 is a modern programming language. It is easy and pleasant to use. There is a `print()` function to print values in Python. Inside the parentheses we write what we want to print, separated by commas. Here is a program that makes a few calculations:

```print (5 + 10)
print (3 * 7 (17 - 2) * 8)
print (2 ** 16) # two asterisks denote exponentiation
print (37/3) # a slash is the division
print (37 // 3) # div operation
print (37% 3) # mod operation
```

To enter data into the program, we use the `input ()` function. It reads one line.

Here’s a program that reads the name of the user and greets him:

```print ( 'What is your name?')
name = input () # read the line and place it into a variable
print ( 'Hello,' + name + '!')
```

Typically, the program reads the data, processes it and displays a result. When you start it on your computer, the program reads the data that the user entered using the keyboard, and displays the result on the screen.

Let’s try to write a program that reads two numbers and prints their sum. To do this, we consider two numbers and store them in the variables `a` and `b`, using the assignment operator `=`.

```a = input()
b = input()
s = a + b
print(s)
```

The program will display 57, although in real life 5 + 7 is 12. This is because Python “folded” two lines instead of two numbers. In Python, two lines are formed as follows: the first line is attributed to the second.

In Python, all the data is represented by objects. Number 2 is represented by the object “`number 2`“, the string ‘hello’ is an object “`'string' hello`”.

Each object refers to some type. Strings are stored in str type objects, integers are stored in objects of int type, and the fractional numbers (real numbers) are float objects. Object type determines what actions you can do with the objects of this type. For example, if first and second variables are int type objects, they can be multiplied, and if they are objects of type str, they can not be multiplied:

```first = 5
second = 7
print(first * second) #will work
first = '5'
second = '7'
print(first * second) #will not work
```

To convert a string of digits to an integer, use the `int ()` function. For example, `int ('23 ')` returns the number 23.

Here is an example of the correct program that reads two numbers and prints their sum:

```a = int(input())
b = int(input())
s = a + b
print(s)
```

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