Inorganic chemistry is the science of chemistry elements and simple and complex substances formed by them, with the exception of organic connections. The concept of “inorganic chemistry” (mineral chemistry) appeared initially to designate substances of mineral origin. This discipline is rather difficult to study and you should know where to find answers for inorganic chemistry questions.
Basic Inorganic Chemistry Questions and Answers
- What are chemical elements? Chemical elements are substances consisting of identical atoms (for example, Fe, which the iron rod consists of, or Pb, which the lead pipe is made of).
- What are chemical compounds? Chemical compounds are substances consisting of different atoms. For example, water is H20, sodium sulfate is Na2S04, and ammonium hydroxide is NH4OH.
- What classes are atoms divided into? Atoms, which are a part of chemical elements and compounds, are divided into two classes – the atoms of metals and the atoms of nonmetals.
- What ability do atoms of nonmetals have? Atoms of nonmetals (nitrogen N, oxygen O, sulfur S, chlorine CI) have the ability to attach electrons to themselves, taking them from other atoms. Therefore, atoms of non-metals are called “electronegative.”
What are the features of atoms of metals? Atoms of metals, on the contrary, tend to give electrons to other atoms. Therefore, metal atoms are called “electropositive.” These, for example, are iron Fe, lead Pb, copper Cu, zinc Zn. Substances consisting of two different chemical elements usually contain atoms of a metal of one kind (the designation of the corresponding atoll is placed at the beginning of the chemical formula). Non-metal atoms are also of the same type (in the chemical formula, the designation of the corresponding atom is placed after the metal atom). For example, look at sodium chloride NaCI. If the substance does not contain a metal atom, then the least electronegative element is placed at the beginning of the chemical formula, for example, ammonia NH3.
- When was the system of names for inorganic chemical compounds approved? The system of names for inorganic chemical compounds was approved in 1960 by the International Union of IUPAC. Inorganic chemical compounds are named first pronouncing the name of the most electronegative element (usually non-metal). For example, a compound with the chemical formula KCI is referred to as potassium chloride. The substance H2S is called hydrogen sulfide, and CaO is called calcium oxide.
- What is a precursor? The precursor is a predecessor, or more precisely, the usual inorganic designation of the starting substance that reacts. The ultimate goal of researchers is not the synthesis of compounds, but the creation on their basis materials with a certain set of properties. The properties of the same material depend on its structure. Well, this is understandable in a general sense, and if you dig deeper, it turns out that each material has several levels of structure related to each other, and all of them affect the properties of the material.
- What are the levels of structure of each material? The first level of structure is the crystalline level. It is a structure on the atomic and ionic level of organization of matter, and it is how ions, atoms or molecules are located in the crystal lattice relative to each other. The next level is more distant from the atomic state, and is associated with the presence of various linear defects in the solid. The third level consists of macroscopic defects (for example, pores) that arise in solids during their formation or use.
- What is the difference between a single crystal and polycrystal? It’s one thing when we have a single crystal in our hands – the crystal order repeats itself in its entirety. But most often we are dealing with polycrystalline bodies, that is, those that consist of small crystallites, differently oriented to each other. There are additional defects (dislocations, boundaries between the crystals, pores, cracks) that make an important contribution to the formation of properties. For example, iron, if obtained in the form of a single crystal, will be chemically completely inert. And if the iron is obtained by decomposition of carbonyl or iron oxalate, it will be a polycrystalline material, which immediately burns in air, forming oxides. Both are iron, but they behave quite differently.
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